Intestinal worms are numerous and come in many forms. The most common are pinworms , small and thin white with a size of between 3-12 millimeters that live in the digestive tract. oxyuris vermicularis (in humans) or enterobius vermicularis is the scientific name. Diseases caused by worms can vary widely. Some worms live in the intestines (such as tapeworms or tænia) while others pass through the intestines but settle elsewhere in the body.
To get rid of oxyuris vermicularis , drug treatment must be carried out. How to get rid of parasites in the body must be accompanied by cleaning bed linen, pajamas and underwear, these objects may contain eggs. It is very important to care for the entire family of an infected person and to renew the drug intake 2-3 weeks after the first intake, to ensure that all worms have been removed ( ingested eggs of worms , which hatch in the intestines, can last several days in the open). Simple and effective prevention of oxyuris vermicularis . Good hygiene and especially through regular hand washing.
Quoting the regulation of the minister of health of the Republic of Indonesia Number 15 of 2017 concerning the Prevention of Worms. The prevalence of intestinal worms in Indonesia is generally still very high, especially among the poor, with poor sanitation. The prevalence of worms varied between 2.5% – 62%. Therefore, it needs awareness from all parties to avoid this worm disease .
Types of intestinal worms
All of these parasites need a host organism to live. When they settle in the digestive tract, it is called intestinal parasitosis. Several types of intestinal worms, including:
- Tapeworms are found in pork (taenia solium) or beef (Taenia saginata). Those affected, the impact of eating undercooked beef or pork.
- Liver flukes, which are transmitted by cattle or sheep contaminate plants ingested by humans, hatch the parasites in the intestines so that they then travel to the liver where they settle.
- Roundworms, a related parasite called Ascaris round, are very common in the tropics. May cause coughing, vomiting and diarrhea. The worms involved can be over 10 centimeters in size. Large (adult) worms live in the intestines, their eggs can be found in dirty water or poorly washed food.
- The echinococcus granulosus parasite is transmitted by parasites in dogs or their fangs. The parasite, once in the intestine, crosses its walls to settle in the liver where it causes cysts to form. It can also settle in the lungs. Hydatid liver disease ( echinococcosis hydatid or hydatid cyst) is mainly present in France and Corsica.
Etiology and prognosis of pinworms
Enterobiasis is an infection that occurs after pinworm eggs are ingested. The eggs of enterobius vermicularis spread from each other. The female lays eggs that will stick around the area, which can cause anus itching . Pinworms in children can cause anal itching so they will scratch their rectum and then not wash their hands properly can touch other children. The latter, by putting your fingers in your mouth, can become a contagious cause of pinworms . Contamination can also come from dirty food.
It is thought that between 1 in 3 and 1 in 4 people are pinworm carriers . That means everyone is at risk. The people most at risk are children, who attend school or live in communities. The cause of intestinal worms is lack of hygiene (hands that are not washed or washed properly, long and dirty nails), they easily pass the eggs to each other. But pinworm infections are also very common in communities such as nursing homes, barracks or mental hospitals and of course in families.
Scratching on the anus and not washing it thoroughly afterward is the most risky behavior. Likewise, not treating people who have anal itching carries a significant risk of transmission to those around them. Enterobius vermicularis does not usually cause serious complications. However, they can cause infections of the female genitals or even inflammation of the vagina or uterus.
Often times, pinworm infection doesn’t cause any symptoms. If present, the signs tend to be mild:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Restlessness or nervousness and insomnia (due to itchy butt holes )
- Itching (anal or vaginal area) usually in the afternoon and evening
- Vulvitis, an inflammation of the vulva (female external genital organs)
- Stomach pain: occurs in 20% of people with pinworms and is caused by chronic inflammation of the intestines (which also causes diarrhea).
As in general, every diagnosis will be made by a doctor by asking for a medical history (both individual and family), asking for symptoms, doing a physical examination to look for signs of disease, and if necessary the doctor can also perform additional tests in the form of a stool test.
The diagnosis is confirmed by finding eggs in a wet stool or finding adult worms on colonoscopy. Counting eggs per gram of feces using the katokatz technique is used as a guide to determine the severity of the infection.
How to treat pinworms
It is important to care for the entire family and not just the affected child. Treatments, often drinkable suspensions, are available over the counter in pharmacies. Parasitic drugs are anthelmintics (eg Fluvermal (flubendazole) which may be recommended by a pharmacist or diethyl carbamazine and albendazole.Treatments should be renewed between 10 days and 3 weeks after the first dose.
Natural worm medicine can also be used as a way to kill parasites in the body, namely by consuming garlic, turmeric and onions. Apply aloe vera gel or virgin coconut oil can be a folk remedy for anal itching.
Prevention is simple, namely by doing:
- Change bed linen regularly
- Opening the cover of the bedroom because pinnacles are sensitive to light
- How to prevent intestinal worms in children, by cutting their nails short and changing their underwear every day.
- Wash your hands regularly and properly. Before preparing food, after using the toilet, and just before eating.
- Given the frequency of infections, take pinworm medication once a year (even if there are no signs).
- Hukor.kemkes.go.id: Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia Number 15 of 2017 concerning Worms Management: http://hukor.kemkes.go.id/uploads/produk_hukum/PMK_No._15_ttg_Penanggangg_Cacingan_.pdf
- Review.Bukalapak.com: 7 Powerful Natural Ingredients Kill worms and parasites in the Body Children: https://review.bukalapak.com/mom/7-bahan-alami-ini-ampuh-bunuh-cacing-dan-parasit- in-the-body-child-56601
- Jawapos.com: Effective Ways to Overcome Itching in the Anal Area: https://www.jawapos.com/keseh/health-issues/17/01/2017/cara-ampuh-lasi-gatal-di-daerah-dubur/
- Bupa.co.th : Pinworm: symptoms, causes, treatment, prevention : https://bupa.co.th/pinworm-0254/